COPYRIGHT. Under the United States Copyright Revision Act of 1976 (effective January 1, 1978), a statutory copyright exists for a work as soon as it is created in some tangible form, even if it has not been published, and regardless of whether or not it is registered with the registrar of the United States Copyright Office. This entire Web site, its pages, and all of its individual graphics and editorial content (exclusive of works that fall within the Public Domain, are used with the permission of others, or fall under the Fair Use doctrine) have been created by Joelle Steele, and are owned by Joelle Steele and Joelle Steele Enterprises. There is a copyright notice on every page of this Web site to indicate the period of coverage to which this copyright applies.
COPYRIGHT-OWNERSHIP. Per the U.S. Copyright Office, ownership of a 'copy' of a photograph (the tangible embodiment of the 'work') is distinct from the 'work' itself (the intangible intellectual property). The photographer will own the copyright in the photograph (the intangible intellectual property) unless the copyright in the photograph is transferred, in writing and signed by the copyright owner, to another person. If the photographer is no longer living, the rights in the photograph are determined by the photographer’s will or are passed as personal property by the applicable laws of intestate succession. The photograph may eventually fall into the public domain (see next paragraph).
COPYRIGHT-PUBLIC DOMAIN. The majority of the photographs used on this Web site are antiques that fall within the public domain. Per the U.S. Copyright Office, photographic images fall into the public domain if they were: 1) created, published, or printed prior to 1923; 2) were published without copyright notice prior to 1963; 3) were published without copyright renewal prior to 1963; 4) were created by an anonymous photographer more than 120 years ago; or 5) were created by a photographer who died more than 70 years ago.
COPYRIGHT-FAIR USE. In accordance with the Fair Use Doctrine of the United States Copyright Law, Title 17, U.S. Code, Section 107, Joelle Steele and Joelle Steele Enterprises exercise the right to use copyrighted material belonging to other parties for the purpose of commentary, criticism, and instruction in articles produced on this Web site. Joelle Steele and Joelle Steele Enterprises make every effort possible to determine copyright ownership, if any, of such materials, and such ownership is acknowledged as a courtesy. From Section 107: The fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.